Wednesday, July 8, 2020
<h1> The Do This, Get That Guide On Essay Topics for Paradise Lost</h1> <h2>The History of Essay Topics for Paradise Lost Refuted </h2> <p>Criteria for the choice could be dependent upon your advantage and the information you have with respect to this issue. Work is indispensable, so find what you appreciate. It's extremely similarly as simple as it sounds. All things considered, keep perusing to clean your capacities. </p> <p>Whenever you're attempting to pinpoint your inspirations for who you might want to be, it will assist with examining the individuals you most need to resemble. The excellence about word upchuck is it tends to be anything. The truth of the matter is that that is conceivable right now if you realize the best spot to look. You might need to portray the person in detail, similar to their mentalities, conduct, awesome sides, and so forth </p> <p>Your Session will terminate soon As you've been inert for about 15 m inutes you'll before long be logged from the protected region of our site. Understudies have occupied existences and as often as possible disregard a coming cutoff time. </p> <h2>The 30-Second Trick for Essay Topics for Paradise Lost </h2> <p>Following are a couple of the recommended human science article point for those understudies that can't pick an incredible theme for their task. Despite the fact that it's normal, understudy needs to get option to become astounding evaluations. Frequently undergrads get into heaps of worry to get the correct subject for the article. In this way, numerous understudies and representatives choose to get economical paper as opposed to composing it themselves. </p> <p>It is savvy to search for the one which has an extraordinary notoriety and offers top notch papers at reasonable rates. It's critical to peruse cautiously paper administrations surveys, since you wish to forestall low predominant administrations. You can even look at a few surveys and after that settle on the business which best suits your prerequisites and modest spending plan. Our audits contain data like the score of the customers, our rating, beginning costs, Discounts, and grade of the papers. </p> <h2> Essay Topics for Paradise Lost - Overview </h2> <p>Therefore, before composing a GED exposition your assignment will be to pick the subject of your exploration paper. The absolute initial step is to choose an appropriate theme when you're making a paper on Literature. </p> <p>It's conceivable to compose on anything on earth from charge Clinton to smoking peril, yet at the finish of the paper on the off chance that your exposition isn't clear and justifiable, at that point there isn't any utilization of composing, so ensure you're composing an article that is simple yet interesting. Remember that the peruser may wish to have a deep understanding of the article on which you're composing. At that point attempt our article composing can be used to the digital broadcast. It is similarly as troublesome and nearly as basic as the presentation. </p> <h2> The Demise of Essay Topics for Paradise Lost</h2> <p>After finding our site, you will no longer should trouble loved ones with these sorts of solicitations. For some of them you will need support, while others you're ready to compose without anyone else. The creatures which are enduring deforestation need to escape the area and search out new asylum, which may not exclusively be u nsafe to creatures, yet to people moreover. Proposals to protect the finish of jeopardized species. </p> <p>In the occasion the topic is confused and ought to be clarified, your point will be to separate a confounded theme into a straightforward one. You ought to have your reasons, and our chief concern is that you end up getting an incredible evaluation. There are consistently different techniques for dealing with a circumstance. Among the most common issues in our present reality is the matter of deforestation. </p> <p>Paradise Lost incorporates numerous characters who can be promptly looked into with each other. Sin is a stunning lady yet at precisely the same time ugly. Phenomenal for understudies who must compose Paradise Lost papers. 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When taking a gander at a short article, consider something that bunches of people attempt to discover in look. </p> <p>It's conceivable to post a remark when you have questions. For the subsequent activity, you will be given an inquiry and 7 to 8 answer decisions. The survey is going to show you anything you desire to comprehend and afterward it's conceivable to put your buy unhesitatingly. </p> <p>The working of Pandemonium demonstrates that there's something else entirely to Hell. Expound on the person who has had the best impact on your life. It's entirely expected to overlook how far you've come throughout everyday life. </p> <h2>The Meaning of Essay Topics for Paradise Lost </h2> <p>Be sure to depend upon proof which you find in the content to reinforce your contention. The paper ought to be in excess of 200 words in length, there isn't any maximum cutoff. For the second errand you will be provided a title and 4 little perusing sections notwithstanding 5 themes which you have to discover in those entries. Allude to specific sections. </p>
Sunday, June 28, 2020
A Manual For Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Disseminated Dissertations by Kate L. Turabians
<h1>A Manual For Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Disseminated Dissertations by Kate L. Turabians</h1><p>Kate L. Turabians' A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Disseminated Dissertations is the best guide on paper composing I have run over. As an alumni understudy I expected to compose papers for my thesis and instruct in a propelled class. I was not content with the guidance I got from my school's personnel for composing my expositions. I in this manner bought this book to get some direction on this urgent part of my scholarly life.</p><p></p><p>In The Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Disseminated Dissertations, Turabians guides you through the entirety of the phases of composing. There are segments covering the procedure of how to pick a subject, inquire about, organizing your composition, tending to your crowd, checking the rightness of your work, choosing a theme, setting up your exploration posit ion, and presenting your paper. For the initial step, picking a theme, she exhorts utilizing a database to accumulate information on numerous subjects. She recommends that you search for points you appreciate, know a ton about, or that you can find out about rapidly. After you have gathered enough data, you can begin the way toward choosing a subject, which is in all likelihood the most troublesome advance of the entire process.</p><p></p><p>Your following stage in The Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Disseminated Dissertations is looking into for a theme. Turabians depicts her experience as an editorial manager with the National Science Foundation, which she says is a decent wellspring of research. Another wellspring of research can be your exploration aides, whom you can call or email.</p><p></p><p>Part two of Turabians' 'A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Disseminated Dissertations' is organizing your composition. It begins with a section on investigate structure. Here she suggests that you utilize both research polls and inquiries questions. You ought to likewise consider composing style, including passage structures, sentence structure, and what sort of design you need your content to have. On the off chance that you like to examine something other than the examination, at that point this is the segment for you.</p><p></p><p>Your crowd is a significant piece of your exploration paper. Turabian's aides you through this just as language structure and accentuation. One tip that I especially like is the proposal that you make your title 'your objective.' This tells the peruser who your objective is. The remainder of this part is devoted to tending to your audience.</p><p></p><p>Disseminating your paper is the last advance in The Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Disseminated Dissertations. In this part, Turabians advocates leading a primer review of your crowd. An example investigate poll will assist you with assessing who is well on the way to be keen on your exploration and who will be destined to have the option to get it. From here you can decide if the style of the introduction will be proper for the audience.</p><p></p><p>After directing a review, the last advance in the book is to check your work. Turabians recognizes that occasionally an inappropriate changes might be fundamental so as to set up your paper appropriately. This is the place another part comes in, where Turabians surveys the data you assembled for an examination poll, including potential inquiries, how to plan the genuine poll, and how to assess it.</p><p></p><p>Overall, this Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Disseminated Dissertations is incredible. It is basic and clear. The short sections are separated in straightforward advances with the goal that you can without much of a stretch tail them. It's anything but difficult to get and begin perusing from a book that contains away from of each step.</p>
Monday, June 15, 2020
<h1>Essay Topics - Get Out of Your Comfort Zone</h1><p>The significant bit of leeway of composing a free exposition is that you will have full oversight over the quantity of subjects and the request in which they are introduced. This gives you adaptability as well as empowers you to pick various points and a request in which you might want them to be introduced so as to capitalize on your writing.</p><p></p><p>Choosing the best paper subject is one of the more significant strides recorded as a hard copy an effective article. The facts confirm that a paper isn't something that can be finished spontaneously. Nonetheless, as an author, you ought to endeavor to make a theme that is intriguing to peruse and in all likelihood, it is something that will give the peruser a feeling of interest.</p><p></p><p>The first thing that you ought to do before you compose an entire page of your exposition is to look through your current work and select the points that you have pondered expounding on. By choosing the themes that you imagine that you should expound on, you will have the option to concoct subject thoughts quickly.</p><p></p><p>The following stage is to pick the diverse gre paper points that you need to remember for your composition. So as to guarantee that the papers that you compose are of great, it is ideal to pick points that are famous or they won't be perused very well.</p><p></p><p>You likewise need to consider the subjects that are sought after in the general public. Typically, individuals need to find out about subjects that are identified with employments, callings, and studies. For instance, in the event that you are composing an exposition for your history degree program, you should incorporate subjects that identify with the various nations that you contemplated in.</p><p></p><p>After you have chosen the article point that you might want to expound on, you have to get some answers concerning the distribution where you can present your work. So as to compose a decent paper, you have to realize how to introduce your thought plainly with the goal that it will be coherent and simple to understand.</p><p></p><p>In request to discover the distinctive exposition points and the request in which you ought to keep in touch with them, you ought to experience a portion of the online assets that offer online articles on different subjects. Be that as it may, it is additionally critical to focus on the style and the arrangement of the expositions that you will be writing.</p>
Friday, June 5, 2020
Essay Topics on Career GoalsThe main idea of nursing career is to have career goals. The importance of nursing career goals has been stressed upon by people as well as those who have had this profession. However, it is not enough to have career goals and then, try to see to it that you accomplish them.The first step to being a good student in nursing career is to create a list of career goals and write them down. You should keep the list of goals handy. You need to write down the ones that you want to do in your future as a nurse and those that you think you cannot get done in the least amount of time. At the same time, you should write down the ones that are important for you.It is important to ask yourself what is the difference between the two kinds of goals. They are not the same. You need to pay attention to each and every option you have to accomplish your career goals. Once you set your goals, go ahead and be prepared to go for them.Sometimes, the only way for you to achieve c areer goals is to apply for job openings. You need to have a resume that is strong and can help you meet the requirements for getting the job you want. At the same time, you should not wait for the job advertisement to come for you. Instead, you need to be proactive and pursue the job you want.Before you give up, remember that some job opportunities are just around the corner. What matters more is how you want to get them. You should always look forward and not back.Remember, when you write your essay topics on nursing career goals, you need to look for a direction that will give you the direction to proceed. Do not choose some task because it seems to be easy. It is better to follow your dreams and not go by where they lead you. The most successful people never follow the path, their careers take them.There are several career choices in nursing that you may consider in the next few years. You may not be able to tell exactly which one to choose, but at least you will know where you need to look in order to realize them. These career choices will be different from one another. This is because the career choices in nursing are truly vast. You should try to read as much as you can in order to learn more about the different types of nursing careers.Lastly, when you write your essay topics on career goals, you need to do some research to find out which career options are best for you. You can use online resources in order to help you find out which career path is most suitable for you.
Wednesday, June 3, 2020
Investigation of the effects of situational factors on consumers buying products with superstitious association 1.0 Introduction Research questions: (1) Are Chinese consumers always more likely to purchase products with lucky associations? If not, under what circumstances do Chinese consumers show higher willingness to buy such products and the underlying process. (2) Can the attributes of all kinds of products can be linked with lucky associations? If not, what kinds of products can be taken into account when marketers want to link their original attribuite with superstitious associations? (3) Do consumers show the same perception towards different attributes with superstitious associations? If not, which attribute is more suitable to be linked with superstitious association. (4) Are attributes with lucky associations of certain products the more the better? If not, how many attributes are considered suitable to be linked with superstitious associations? (5) Do consumers want to pay premium for certain product of which the attributes with lucky associations? If yes, do different types of consumers want to pay the same premium to certain lucky attribute? (6) What is the long-term attitude of consumers towards the products with superstitious-related attributes? 2.0 Literature review 2.1 What is superstition? 2.1.1 The concept of superstition Superstitions are beliefs that run counter to rational thought or are inconsistent with known laws of nature (Vyse, 1997). Superstition is a belief, or set of belief, that specific actions can directly influence the occurrence of desirable outcomes or the avoidance of undesirable outcomes when, in fact, the actions are not causally related to the outcomes (Carlson, Mowen, Fang, 2009, p. 691). Superstitions are attitudes individually held by people which related their existence to a general order of the cosmos, but which are not based on empirical evidence nor incorporated within the institutionalized belief systems of a society, as defined by leading representatives of these systems at any given time (Jarvis, 1980, p. 295). Superstition is (1) fundamentally irrational; (2) popularly accepted; (3) usually influences the behavior of the holder; (4) may be a belief in supernatural phenomena in the conventional sense; (5) has no sound evidence of personal experience to support it; and (6) may have arisen spontaneously and spread without ever having had the sanction of authority (Levitt, 1952). Ono (1987) define superstitious behavior as behavior produced by response-independent schedules of reinforcer delivery, in which only an accidental relation exists between responses and delivery of reinforcers. J. Rudski (2001) believe that in operant behavior, an instrumental response is strengthened when it is followed by a desired consequence. Occasionally, the desired outcomes occur independently of actual responding, yet people still attribute a causal relationship between the two. Such an attribution can be called a superstitious belief. 2.1.2 The typology of superstition Magic thinking is a belief that (a) transfer of energy or information between physical systems may take place solely because of their similarity or contiguity in time and space, or (b) that ones thoughts, words, or actions can achieve specific physical effects in a manner not governed by the principles of ordinary transmission of energy or information (Zusne Jones, 1989, p. 13) Superstitions are rooted in magic thinking (Jahoda, 1969; Keinan, 1994, 2002; Zusne Jones, 1989) 2.2 Superstition in marketplace Recent years witness the fast development of research of superstition in marketplace. There are two research lines in this field: first line is to explore the antecedents and consequences of superstition using modeling; the other line is to know consumers attitude towards superstition in marketing and how superstition influence consumers decision making. 2.2.1 The model of superstition in consumer behavior context Mowen and Carlson are the advocators of the first line. In Mowen Carlson (2003), they employed a hierarchical model of personality to investigate a number of possible trait antecedents and consumer-behavior-related consequences of superstition. One of the interesting findings is that the antecedents of superstition include a lower need for learning among older adults, higher levels of sports interest, a belief in fate, and a decreased belief in heaven and hell. In addition, the results suggest that the consequences of superstition might include beliefs in astrology, magic, psychokinesis, and the existence of fictitious creatures. Evidence suggesting a negative association between superstitious beliefs and attitudes concerning the genetic engineering of food products is also obtained. Based on this research, Carlson, Mowen, Fang (2009) further demonstrate the relationship between trait superstition and consumer behavior. A new measure of trait superstition is developed and a nomolog ical net of its consequences and antecedents identified: they found that trait superstition influence traditional superstitious behaviors such as keeping good luck charms and forwarding emails; they also found that trait superstition influence consumer activities in which outcomes are uncertain and are likely to be influenced by chance. These activities includesport fanship, gambling interest, stock market involvment and promotional games; moreover, trait superstition is predictive of a wide variety of consumer beliefs such as belief in astrology and in common negative superstitions (i.e. fearing black cat) this research reveal a set of antecedents of trait superstition. This two papers lay the foundation of research about the relationship between superstition and consumers trait and the consequences. One criticsm of the model mentioned above is by Vaidyanathan, Aggarwal, Cha, Chun (2007). They mentioned that Mowen Carlson (2003)s model is narrow in that it does not provide an adequate explanation for a variety of superstitious behaviors that are not based on a lack of belief in science. In addition, this model fail to recognize the differences between superstition in modern society and traditional superstition and ignore instrumental-based and social-based superstition. Thus, Vaidyanathan, et al.(2007) proposed a new model named a need-satisfaction model of superstitious behavior that classifies the needs met by superstitious behavior into (1) function need, (2) psychological needs, and (3) social needs. More specifically, they mentioned that the operating principle underlying functional need satisfaction is the illusory of control; the operating principle underlying the psychological need satisfaction of superstitious behavior is counterfatual thinking; the operating principle underlying the social need satisfaction dimension of superstitious behavior is social learning. 2.2.2 The influence of superstition on consumer decision making The second research stream is about the effects of superstition on consumers decision making. Literature in this line at early stage mainly foscus on Chinese consumerssuperstitious-related perception to the specific number, color and letter. For example, Ang (1997) showed that Chinese consumers consistently regarded A and S to be lucky letters and F and Z to be unlucky letters. The lucky number is 8 while 4 is considered unlucky. Moreover, he also found that brand name with lucky letters and numbers are perceived more favorably than those with unlucky letters and numbers. The ramifications of a lucky brand name are wide ranging from perception that the brand is lucky, to being successful, and to having superior quality. Thus, in the absence of other information, Chinese consumers make inferences about product characteristics and success based on brand name. Several following papers, from different perspective verified Ang (1997)s demonstration. Bourassa Peng (1999) use hedonic price analysis to investigate whether house values are affected by lucky and unlucky numbers. Results show that lucky house numbers are capitalised into house values among Chinese households in Aucland, NZ. More precisely, houses with lucky numbers sold for an average 2.4 percent premium. Chau, Ma, Ho (2001) use Hong Kong data to verify this phenonmen again. They show that consumer are willing to pay a premium for a lucky property in Hong Kong. A lucky floor number such as 8, 18, 28 etc. has been shown to be a valuable attribute, although it does not bring about any observable tangible benefit for the tenants living in these units. They also mentioned that the demand for such attribute is very volatile: during property booms, the demand for such an attribute is high due to the superstition and show-off effects so during these period, consumers are more willing to pay a higher premium for lucky floor numbers; however, during a slump period, the demand for such an intangible attribute of a property declines quickly. Cai, Cai, Keasey (2007) analyse the impact of cultural factors on both price clustering and price resistance in Chinas stock market. The results show support the presence of cultural factors impacting on price clustering with the digit 8 showing a higher propensity for clustering and the digits 4 and 7 showing a lowing propensity in the A-share market, where stock is denominated in Renminbi and traded by mainland Chinese. The other paper is Simmons Schindler (2003). They showed that the superstitious meanings attached to certain digits in traditional Chinese culture correspond to the use of those digits in the endings of advertised prices. They found that the digit 8, associated with properity and good luck, to be overrepresented among the price endings used in Chinese advertising; digit 4, associated with death, to be underrepresented among price endings. Furthermore, both results are consistent across different price-ending measures and across three diverse communities of chinese society. The research mentioned above only reveal the superstitious-related phenomone, not detailed analysis the reasons why people show willingness to use superstition in decision making. Tsang (2004) filled this gap. He discussed the relationship between superstition and business decision-making in chinese business communities and showed that the reason why Chinese businessman want to use superstition to help make decision is that superstition helps people cope with uncertainty through providing an additional source of information and reducing uncertainty induced anxiety, which correspond to the informational and psychological aspects of uncertainty respectively. In his paper, he also mentioned that the condition of using superstition in decision making which is that the decision is very important or the situation is uncertain. This condition is the same as what psychological research about superstition points out. Next, two papers by Kramer and Block push the research of superstition in markeplaces into the frontline. These two papers, both using experimental methodologies, investigate superstitious symbols (such as digit 8 and color red in Chinese culture) do influence the purchasing attitude and behaviors of superstitious individuals. Specifically, in Kramer Block (2008), the authors pointed out that superstitious beliefs may be a source of information relied upon in evaluation and satisfaction judgements through an automatic process. More precisely, the superstitious associations that individuals hold concerning an objects attribute (e.g. color) will influence how well they believe the object itself should perform. The authors verify that following product failure, Chinese consumers will be less satisfied with a product for which they hold positive (vs. neutral) superstitious associations because Chinese consumers show higher performance expectations to the product with superstitious-relat ed attributes. In addition, this paper found the evidence of the role of nonconscious processing in the effect of superstition. In this research, the nonconscious component of superstition is greater than the conscious part. Block Kramer (2009) based on their last paper further propose that product attributes with superstitious associations influence performance expectations that in turn determine purchase likelihood and subsequent satisfaction after product failure. More precisely, consumers will be more likely to purchase a product with which they have positive superstitious associations as compared to a product with which they do not have any and the differences in purchase likelihood are driven by superstition-based performance expectations. In addition, they show that consumers will be less satisfaied with a product for which they hold positive (vs. neutral) superstitious associations following instances of both negative and positive expectation disconfirmation and expectation disconfirmation sensitivity is considered as a moderator of the impact of superstitious beliefs on product satisfaction. Therefore, incorporating superstitious elements into products can be viewed as a two-side sword because raising expectations with positive superstitious associations may initially induce purchase, but subsequently decrease repurchase rates or positive word-of-mouth as these high expectations are difficult to meet or exceed. 2.2.3 Research gaps In the research stream about the effects of superstition on consumers decision making, although extant literature (Block Kramer, 2009) has verifed the relationship between products with (and without) superstitious attributes and purchase likelihood, two research gaps are left to be filled: (1) From the vertical comparison of product with superstitious-related attributes, under what circumstances do superstitious consumers show higher willingness to buy products with superstitious-related attributes and the underlying process. (different products?) (2) From the horizontal comparison of products with and without lucky attributes, whether superstitious consumers always prefer the products with superstitious-related attributes to the products with nonsuperstitious-related attributes? personal traitproduct with superstitious-based attributes,state (Keinan, 1994, p. 52) Situational and environmental variables In order to answer the first question, I start from the psyclogical literature and find out when superstition happens and why it happens. Then, I will link the psychological research about superstition with superstitious consumers attitude towards product with lucky attributes. Regarding the second question, I will focus on one important factor that influence consumer decision making: information uncertainty towards a product. 2.3 Psychological research on superstition The pervasiveness of superstition in everyday life has long been a concern of psychologists, including researchers, educators, and clinicians (Zusne Jones, 1989) and recent years witness an increasing interest in the study of superstitious beliefs. The studies of superstitious beliefs are important since they can help inform or refine our understanding of the interconnections among imagination, cognition, personality, and culture and then how these associations may produce phenomena like cognitive illusions and delusional thinking (Huang Teng, 2009). Some findings have already been obtained. In answering what kinds of superstition and magic thinking exist, researchers have mentioned several superstitious behaviors such as carrying lucky charms (Wiseman Watt, 2004), knock on wood (Keinan, 2002), keep the fingers crossed (Damisch, 2008; Vyse, 1997), avoid walking under ladders (Pole, Berenson, Sass, Young, Blass, 1974). Furthermore, study have showed that people who seems to be esp ecially likely to exhibit superstition are gamblers (Joukhador, Blaszczynski, Maccallum, 2004), athletes (Bleak Frederick, 1998; Todd Brown, 2003) and students (Albas Albas, 1989; Felson Gmelch, 1979) because they all face situations in a performance context, which elicit pressure, psychological tension, and feeling of anxiety (Schippers Lange, 2006). There are two explanations why under such circumstances do people use superstition: first one is that stress undermines perceived control (Friedland, Keinan, Regev, 1992). As undermined perceptions of control have been associated with negative psychological and physical consequences (Abramson, Seligman, Teasdale, 1978), people, therefore, attempt to do something to regain perceptions of control and superstition is the very one people want to use (Keinan, 1994, 2002; Matute, 1995). Here, as people who engage in superstitious behavior are often aware that their behaviour is unreasonable or irrational but find it difficult to rid themselves of such behavior (George Gmelch Felson, 1980), the purpose of superstition is not a means to an end to control over the outcomes but to offer the comfort of feeling in control. In other words, superstition is considered a secondary control (Case, Fitness, Cairns, Stevenson, 2004). The second explanation is from the perspective of self-efficacy. It has been showed that by helping the individual overcome mental obstacles in performance-related situation, the implementation of a good luck superstition prior to a performance task leads to an increase in perceived self-efficacy towards the required activity, which in turn improves the final performance (Damisch, 2008). One up-to-date research, although does not mention self-efficacy directly, verified that a temporary change in perceptions of luck (an enhanced self-efficacy belief) is performed as a mediating variable between superstition and performance and lucky primes increase consumers risky preference (Jiang, Cho, Adav al, 2009). 2.3.1 Superstitious people Current literature has reported that several groups of people are more superstitious. These groups include: financial investors, gamblers, athletes, students. 22.214.171.124 Superstitious financial investors The former chairman of the Chicago Mercantile Exchange Leo Melamed in his autobiography mention that most traders, whether they admit it or not, are superstitious. Some have a lucky tie that they must wear every day, some use a lucky pencil, others drive to work down the same streets, and so on. (Melamed Tamarkin, 1996) Many Hong Kong tycoons will not go ahead with a building or a financial investment without seeking the advice of a Feng Shui consultant (Tsang, 2004). anecdote Kolb Rodriguez (1987) verified that superstition may play a role in the performance of the securities market. They investigated whether the mean return for Friday the Thirteenth is statistically different from the mean return for other Fridays. They used the sample periods between July 1 1962 and December 31 1985, which includes thirty-nine occurrences of Friday the Thirteenth and using t-test, found that mean returns for Friday the Thirteenth are lower than those of other Fridays. One follow-up study is Lepori (2009). He tested whether superstition-induced behavior affects investment decisions. Similar as Kolb Rodriguez he focused on a phenomenon that is typically interpreted as bad omens by the superstitious both in Asian and Western societies: beliefs associated with eclipses and employed a dataset containing 362 such events over the period 1928-2008. Using four broad indices of the US stock market, he uncovered strong evidence that the occurrence of negative superstitious event s (i.e. eclipses) is associated with below average stock returns, which is consistent with a diminished buying pressure coming from the superstition. He also extended his analysis to a sample of Asian countries and found analogous results. 126.96.36.199 Superstitious gamblers The outcome of most game of chance are random events, completely out of the players control (Vyse, 1997). However, most gamblers have their own way to exert their control over the outcome: engaging superstitious strategies. The concept of superstition in the context of gambling is defined as gestures whether verbal or non-verbal that are deployed and believed to effect the game when there is no empirical connection between that and the outcome (Henslin, 1967, p. 318) and it is one subset of an array of important cognitive distortions identified as contributing to the false belief that one can influence the outcome of a chance event (Toneatto, 1999). Superstition exists in most gambling activities and other games of chance (Joukhador, et al., 2004). One of the most revealing research is a study of craps players by Henslin (1967). Craps is a wagering pure-chance game played with dice and there is no skill involved in throwing dice. Henslin, nonetheless, found that the crap players employed a lot of strategies that they believed increased their chance to win. For example, players will touch the dice softly for wishing a low number and throw the dice hard to bring a high one. Also snapping ones fingers is c onsidered to be lucky. Just as Henslin mentioned the shooter will frequently point with his index finger close to the die, wait until the die has slowed down. Not only crap players employ superstition, later research also showed that bingo players use superstitious strategies such as feelings, hunches and psi, attitudes, and luck to neutralize their marginally deviant behaviors (King, 1990); players also perform superstitious way when playing slot machine: 38% of all their speech can be regarded as irrational and 80% of their strategic statements are irrational (Walker, 1992). Later a series of studies using experimental method to verify that gamblers indeed want to superstitiously control the outcome of the pure-chance game. Rothbart Snyder (1970) use a procedure in which subjects rolled a die and bet on the outcome, it was found that subjects predicting the outcome before the die was rolled bet more money and reported greater confidence in being correct that subjects postdicting the outcome after the die had already been rolled. The results were interpreted as support for the hypothesis that a form of magic thinking mediates the frequently reported positive relationship between subjects desire for a particular outcome and his estimate of that outcomes likelihood of occurrence. Wohl Enzle (2002) find that having choice in a game of chance heightened both perceived personal luck and perceived chance of winning. In the following experiment, hypothesis are tested based on the proposition that luck perceived as a personal quality follows the laws of sympathetic magic. The results show that the participants act as though luck could be transmitted from themselves to a wheel of fortune and thereby positively affect their perceived chance of winning. Wohl Enzle (2009) investigate how perceptions of other peoples luck are used in an attempt to maximize ones own outcomes. More specifically, it was hypothesized that people will defer to a lucky other in games of chance to maximize winning potential. In experiment 1, participants are told that they would receive a scratch-and win lottery ticket as a gratuity for participating. As hypothesized, participants are more likely to allow a confederate to either pick their lottery ticket if they perceived the confederate to be personally lucky than is such perceptions where not facilitated. In experiment 2 and 3, participants interacted with a confederate over the Internet. As predicted, participants are more likely to allow a gambling partner (a confederate) to spin a roulette wheel (experiment 2) and bet more money on the outcome of the spin (experiment 3) if they were made to believe their partner is lucky. 188.8.131.52 Superstitious athletes The popularity of sport combined with the fact that its participants are a traditionally superstitious group make athletes, particularly professional athletes, the most famous of all superstitious people (Vyse, 1997). There is long history in studying the superstitious behavior among athletes. Here one may concern whether the commonly used sport ritual is superstitious behavior. According to Womack (1992), he defined superstitious behavior in sport as actions that are repetitive, formal, sequential, distinct from technical performance, and that the athletes believe to be powerful in controlling luck or other external factors. Here, superstitious behavior focus on bring good luck. Sport rituals is also particular behaviour, however the purpose of ritual is to calm the individual and to provide a predictable routine that allows the person to perform as he or she has practiced and without distractions (Burger Lynn, 2005). Current literature has revealed that nearly all kinds of sports can be found that athletes perform both rituals and superstitious behaviors. For example, Gregory Petrie (1975) investigated superstitions among member of six selected Intercollegiate athletic teams and found that sport superstitions were identified with particular activities: (1) hocky Ã¢â¬â equipment, order and player position; (2) basketball Ã¢â¬â sinking the last warm-up shot; (3) volleyball Ã¢â¬â superstitions pertaining to food; (4) swimming Ã¢â¬â colour of suit; (5) track Ã¢â¬â clothing, lane numbers and superstitions related to shoes; and (6) tennis Ã¢â¬â weather and lucky balls. Several follow-up studies verified and supported the different superstitions across different kinds of sports. Bleak Frederick (1998) found that football rituals were centred around clothing and prayer; gymnasts focuses on team rituals and pregame food rituals; track athletes were the only group that mentioned lucky items of clothing or lucky marking on shoes. Gmelch (1992) showe d that American professional players develop and follow a daily routine which is believed to reduce chance and their feelings of uncertainty. These routines include eating the same food and listening to the same songs before the match. Also many players have fetishes or charms which they believe to embody supernatural power that can aid or protect them. These charms include a wide assortment of objects from coins, chains and crucifixes to a favourite baseball hat. Apart from the investigation of different superstitions in sports, researchers also revealed the timing of superstition happening in one particular sport. For example, Gmelch (1971) found that for baseball player, superstitions hardly occur in fielding where success is 97.5%. However when it comes to hitting and pitching, where the rate of success is only 0.245 and seems to depend on luck and other external circumstances, superstitious rituals are often exhibited. Similarly, Ciborowski (1997) reported a high rate of superstitious practices when games were close or when a team was about to lose, but not when a team was leading comfortably. uncertainty? 184.108.40.206 Superstitious students Researchers have showed that students employed superstitious strategies during the examination period. Albas Albas (1989) observed 300 students of University of Manitoba in a number of locations, on and off campus, and conducted many formal and informal interview over thirteen years and estimated that 20% to 33% students used magic, primarily to bring on good luck rather than to ward off bad luck. They divided the students exam-related superstitions into two broad categories: the use of lucky objects and the practices of special rituals. Regarding the lucky objects, they showed that some students used common amulets such as rabbits feet, dice and coins. The special rituals, they mentioned, were highly private and idiosyncratic. For example, they reported that one student knocked on exam door three times; one student played the song Money Changes Everything on the drive to school. One further study is by Gallagher Lewis (2001). They used US subjects and found that nearly 70% of students indicated some level of test-related superstitious practice. They also showed that superstitious practice among students was largely independent of religious belief and practice and of gender and race. Not only students in the context of western culture perform superstitious behavior, many students from eastern culture also employ superstitious strategies. Tsang (2004) reported that many Chinese TOELF candidates, who had applied for scholarships provided by US universities and were waiting for the scholarship offers, went to pray in the Temple of the Lying Buddha in Beijing, China. 220.127.116.11 The similarities of above superstitious groups When taking a look at the four groups of people who are particularly likely to perform superstition, we can find the similarities of them. Financial market, as mentioned by Lepori (2009), is highly uncertain and the risk is high (Vyse, 1997). Gamblers also face the uncertainty because gambling sometimes is pure chance-determined game and gamblers cannot control over the outcome. Students during examination time and athletes in a match also experience the same thing. According to Damisch (2008), exams and matches are important to students and athletes because they are in the performance context which exist both certainty and uncertainty. The uncertainty components include the difficulty of exams and the level of couterparts in the match. Meanwhile, the outcome of the performance is usually important because students may enter a good university and athletes may win the champion. Thus these characteristics may result pressure, physical tension and feeling axiety. Rationally speaking, pe ople can use the controllable forces to control the certainty and people cannot control the uncertainty things (Burger Lynn, 2005). However, people, when dealing with uncontrollable events or uncertainty, do not merely wait and see the outcomes happen passively, instead they perform some ways (for example superstition) so that they do something to try to influence the uncontrollable event. Taken together, regardless of financial investors, gamblers, athletes and students, they face uncertainty and the outcomes which are considered important to them. So far, I have summarized the similar characters of the superstitious groups and I believe it is these characters that make these groups resort to superstition. In the next paragraphs, I will find further support about whether these factors do influence the occurance of superstition, in other words, I will find out the situational variables for people to perform superstition. 2.3.2 Situational variables of superstition Last paragraph, we focus on participant variables that who is likely to engage superstitious behavior and summarize it is the situation or environment that make these groups of people prone to perform superstition. In this paragraph I will show the evidence to further support the idea that situational or environmental factors do influence peoples engaging superstitious behaviors. Indeed, prior literature has showed that people tend to endorse superstitious beliefs and to resort to superstitious strategies under conditions of uncertainty (Felson Gmelch, 1979; Malinowski, 1954) and the high importance of the outcome (J. M. Rudski Edwards, 2007; Schippers Lange, 2006). 18.104.22.168 Uncertainty Researchers from a variety of disciplines have argued that superstition often grows out of uncertainty. One of the first pieces of evidence for this notion comes from Malinowski (1954)s observations. He (Malinowski, 1972/1948, pp. 139-140) observe the life of Trobrianders and find magic wherever the elements of chance and accident, and the emotional play between hope and fear have a wide and extensive range. He does not find magic wherever the pursuit is certain, reliable, and well under the control of rational methods and technological processes. Further, he finds magic where the element of danger is conspicuous. This work opens the door for the following researchers to study when superstition happens. Some follow-up studies further verify Malinowskis theory. For example, Felson Gmelch (1979) argue that magic results from purely cognitive processes and represents an effort to produce favourable. In other words, people believe that unknown forces (good luck or bad luck) play a role in the outcome of events and that these forces can be manipulated by magic. They use survey to find that students reported using more magic in activities that are relatively uncertain (i.e. gambling) and less in activities that are relatively more certain (i.e. illness). Thus this study suggests that people use magic in situations of uncertainty, which support Malinowskis basic notion. 22.214.171.124 The importance of outcome The perceived importance of the outcome increased, irrational beliefs also increase. One possible explanation for this is that when the stakes are high, in some peoples eye, superstitious behavior will become more rational because from the perspective of expected-utility, the small inconvenience of the superstition is outweighed by the potential benefit (Vyse, 1997). This explanation is supported by the principle of Pascals Wager which demonstrate that even if there is only a small possible concerning the existence of heaven and hell, it might be the safest strategy to protect against the risk of damnation by living a Christian life. Therefore, high stakes (the outcome is important) will lead people to perform superstitious behavior in case it can be helpful. Researchers have also showed this causal relationship of the importance of outcome with the use of superstitious behavior in different context. For example, Biner, Angle, Park, Mellinger, Barber (1995) used experimental method to investigate whether need affect subjects level of confidence in winning a motiveÃ¢â¬ârelevant incentive in a chance-based card-drawing activity. Results show that compared to food-satiated (low need or low importance) subjects, food-deprived (high need or high importance) subjects were significantly more confident that they would win the hamburger in the pure-chance drawing. In their follow-up study, they used field study to show that higher ratings of personal skill in lottery among low-income participants (outcome is more important) than high-income participants (outcome is less important). In the context of sports, similar findings are also presented. For instance, Schippers Lange (2006),using experimental method, manipulated different type of match (final vs. training) as different importance of the outcome (high importance vs. low importance) and found that ritual commitment, which is defined as the extent to which subjects wish or need to engage in superstitious ritual in sport, is greater when importance of the game is high rather than low. In the context of students taking exam, Rudski Edwards (2007) use experiment to show the causal relationship between importance of outcome and degree of difficulty (easy, moderately comfortable, difficult), and students performing superstitious behaviors. Regarding measuring students superstitious behavior, they based on Bleak Frederick (1998)s survey consisted of 25 items describing common superstitions or rituals about college athletes. About the importance of outcome, they use the setting that the test represents 5%, 20% and 50% of the final exam grade. They found that the importance of the outcome most influenced superstitious rituals. (Damisch, 2008, p. 18) 2.3.2 Why superstitions happen? 126.96.36.199 Stress Stress and superstition Ellson (1942) found a large temporary increase in the percentage of books dealing with psychical research and spiritualism published between 1916 and 1920, which he attributed to the threat posed by the First World War. Sales (1973) believed that peoples interest in superstition is reflected in the popular media and examined the percentage of books and articles pertaining to astrology during threatening and nonthreatening periods and found that the percentage was significantly higher during stressful times. Padgett Jorgenson (1982) use multiple linear regression to demonstrate that economic threat predict the level of superstition in Germany for the tumultuous years 1918 to 1940. Indexes of superstition were the number of articles on astrology, mysticism, and cults appearing in a Germany periodical index. Threat was measured by levels of real wages, unemployment, and industrial production. The economic threat variables significantly predicted level of superstition in two of the three superstition indexs. McCann Stewin (1984) verified that the annual percentage of parapsychological contributions to the psychological literature is (a) correlated positively with the unemployment rate, (b) is correlated negatively with the disposable per capita income in constant dollars, and (c) is correlated positively with the subjective annual threat weightings of historians and social critics. Womack (1992) reported that athletes were more likely to resort to superstition or rituals under highly stressful situation. Keinan (1994) is the landmark to use experimental method to investigate the relationship between psychological stress and magic thinking and the extent to which such a relationship may be moderated by individuals tolerance of ambiguity using Israeli citizens during the Gulf War as the subjects. The results show that superstitious and magic beliefs are more prevalent among people living in regions exposed to missile attacks (high-stress condition) than among those living in regions not exposed to such attacks (low-stress condition). Furthermore, high stress level exerts a more pronounced effect on the occurrence of magical thinking in individuals with low tolerance of ambiguity than in those with high tolerance. Although this paper point out a bright way for future research about superstition in psychology, several research gaps are left to be filled: (1) this research only focus on magic thinking which means that no one knows whether people will use behavioural expressions to deal wi th stress; (2) this paper does not rule out other factors that can also link to magic thinking in the different areas. Keinan (2002) based on the former work further to solve the problems mentioned above. He designed a very clear experiment that half participants are exposed to low-stress conditions (a regular study day during which no examination were held) and half to high-stress conditions (about half an hour before an examination). They are interviewed and asked questions designed to elicit a superstition behavior: knocking on wood ritual. Results show that the difference in the number of knocks on wood between high Desire for Control (DC) and low-DC individuals was greater in the high-stress than in the low-stress condition. Uncertainty and stress Monat, Averill, Lazarus (1972) conducted two experiments to show the effects of uncertainty on anticipatory (3 minutes) stress reactions and cognitive coping reponses. Results show that temporal uncertainty subjects who know that a painful electric shock would occur, but not when, demonstrated maximum affetice disturbance (stress) in the anticipation period and thought less about the shock as time processed. Mishel (1984) proposed a structural model to explain the stress resulting from hospitalization for a medical problem. Results showed that perceived uncertainty about symptoms, treatment, and outcome was examined as a major predictor of stress. Testing of the model with hospitalized medical patients indicated support for the relationship of uncertainty to stress. Uncertainty also had the predicted mediating role between seriousness of illness and stress. Fleming, Okeeffe, Baum (1991) showed that resident living near hazardous waste site which elicit uncertainty about the future of their family performed more poorly on a task that has been shown to be affected by stress and had more difficulty concentrating and/ or motivating themselves to work on the task and experienced greater stress-related arousal of the sympathetic nervous system. Importance of outcome and stress Schuler (1980) Marchant, Morris, Anderson (1998) conducted experiment to investigate whether perceived importance have causal relationship with competitive strate anxiety. They manipulated perceived importance of outcome (low importance: three golf balls vs. high importance: golf shoes) and asked participants to complete the Sport Competition Anxiety Test. Results show the significant differences between the low-importance group and high-importance group on competitive state anxiety. Schippers Lange (2006) use experiment to verify that importance attached to the outcome in a given situation affect peoples tension. More specifically, when outcomes are not considered to be very important, individuals should feel more or less relaxed, the level of psychological tension is low. In contrast, when outcomes are considered to be very important, people experience greater psychological tension and stress. 188.8.131.52 Control The need for control and the aversiveness of perceived uncontrollability are major motivators of human behaviors and have long been identified as a basic motivation in the psychological literature (Averill, 1973; Lefcourt, 1973; White, 1959). Heightened perceptions of control have been associated with psychological and physical well-being (Taylor Brown, 1988) and exposure to uncontrollable situations has deleterious effects and have been associated with feelings of helplessness and other negative psychological and physical consequences (Abramson, et al., 1978). Thus when personal control is threatened or undermined, persons are driven to protect it or regain it (Liu Steele, 1986; Pittman Pittman, 1980). Superstitious strategies are the useful tools for people under low perceptions of control or even no control to regain such control. Stress and control Many psychological literatures have mentioned that experience of stress is strongly associated with perceived loss of control. Lacking control and superstition Some research has pointed out that a tendency towards magical thinking in situation in which control is reduced or lacking. The first study of superstition happening under lacking of control is Skinner (1948). Skinner records the behaviors of hungry pigeons when food is presented regularly and finds that even pigeons can perform superstitious behavior in uncontrollable reinforcement situations. More specifically, Skinner arranges a clock to present food every 15 seconds. After a few minutes, the pigeons start to perform distinctive rituals even though reinforcement is complete independent of the pigeons behavior. The distinctive rituals include that one bird is conditioned to turn counter-clockwise about the cage, making two or three turns between reinforcements; another bird repeatedly thrust its head into one of the upper corners of the cage; a third bird develop a tossing response, as if placing its head beneath an invisible bar and lifting it repeatedly. Skinner (1948) demonstrates that the behavior of the pigeons is a sort of superstition because the bird behaves as if there is a causal relation betw een its behavior and the presentation of food, although such a relation is lacking. Some follow-up studies are conducted and verify Skinners theory from different angles. For example, Ono (1987) analyze the behavior of humans exposed to response-independent schedules of reinforcer delivery and find that idiosyncratic and stereotyped superstitious behavior is produced in human subjects by response-independent schedules. Matute (1994) use experiment to demonstrate that Yoked subjects tend to superstitious behavior and illusion of control during exposure to uncontrollable noise. This in turn prevents the development of learned helplessness because uncontrollability is not perceived. In the following experiment, the failure feedback manipulation is added to the Yoked condition. Results of this experiment replicate previous findings of a proactive interference effect in humans Ã¢â¬â often characterized as learned helplessness. This effect, however, does not support learned helplessness theory because failure feedback is needed for its development. It is argue that conditions of response-independent reinforcement commonly used in human research do not lead to learned helplessness, but to superstitious behavior and illusion of control. Matute (1995) based on his former research test the generality of superstition and illusion of control effects in humans exposed to uncontrollable noise under different task conditions, as well as two different conditions of percentage and distribution of negative reinforcement (noise termination). He find that most subjects exposed to non-contingent negative reinforcement tend to behave superstitiously, and to believe (a) that they had found a way to stop the noise, (b) that the task was controllable, and (c) that they were controlling it. Dudley (1999) support Matutes theory and argue that paranormal beliefs can allow one to make external and specific attributions by placing the blame for failure outside oneself, which may prevent the development of learned helplessness during specific instances of uncontrollability. He use experiment to verify his assumption that participants resort to superstitious belief in unsolvable situations, which may prevent or interrupt performance impairment and superstition may help block the development of learned helplessness. More specifically, he find that college students scoring higher on Tobacyks revised Paranormal Belief Scale (PBS) (J. Tobacyk Milford, 1983; J. J. Tobacyk, 2004) solve more anagrams after exposure to an unsolvable problem than did students who score lower on the PBS. The effectiveness of superstition As superstitious strategies are often used when control is lacking. Some early literatue maintained that the reason why people perform superstition is that they believe it is useful to control the outcome. For example, Killeen (1978) propose that in the attempt to solve a problem, an organism tend to repeat any behavior that may have produced the desire outcome. Later, Van Raalte, Brewer, Nemeroff, Linder (1991) demostrated that those students who believe that their own actions exert some control over chance events are most likely to exhibit superstitious behaviors. However, many psychological researchers argued that even people know clearly that their superstitious behaviors do not have any influence on the potential outcome, they still perform superstitious behaviors. Research that support this standpoint can be found in literatures which are in different contexts. For example, Bleak Frederick (1998) report that may athletes engage in superstitious rituals in spite of their self-reports indicating low levels of aggrement that such behaviors are effective in influencing sports performance which means that it is not necessarily effectiveness of a superstitious sport behavior which determines its popularity among members of a sport team. Rogers (1998), in the context of gambling, observed that Lotto players acknowleged that winning Lotto is based purely on probability but they still believed in hot and cold numbers and used of intuition influenced actual behaviors. Rudski Edwards (2007), in the context of students taking exam, also argue that a lthough many participants reported using charms or rituals, they often failed to grant much credence to their efficacy. In regard to this controversy, Campbell (1996) based on Garwood (1963)s work propsed the concept of modern superstition which he believed that modern practitioners of superstition are not prepared to declare that they believe that they have any control over the outcome. The reason why they engage superstition is that they want emotional reassurance which superstition brings. In addition, they pursue a state to be active rather than accept passivity where control is lacking; a need to protect a fundamental orientation to action which is internalized in their personality and characteristic of their culture. That is to say, people performing superstition want to obtain a feeling which make them comforatble. Current psychological literature, from the perspective of illusory control also support this viewpoint. Illusory control and superstition Langer (1975) is the first researcher to propose this concept. She demonstrated that people act as if they can control outcomes in situations that are purly chance. She proposed that chance situations with skill elements elicit illusions of control, exaggerations of the probability of success based on overestimations of personal control. Case, et al.(2004)s experiment also support this standpoint. They showed that belief in the efficacy of the psychics ability did not appear to drive use of the psychics choice and participants chose the psychic option only on those trials where failure was most salient, in other words, only under circumstance that participants cannot control the outcomes. Case, et al. (2004) investigate the use of superstitious strategies under conditions of low control. In their experiments, 78 participants complete a chance-determined card-guessing task in which they were permitted to use a psychics card selection instead of making their own card selections. Participants use of a superstitious strategy (a psychics selections) increased significantly with the perceived likelihood of failure, which suggests that participants cannot control the outcomes. question, I will start from the psychological literature and try to find that under what circumstance do people perform superstition because according to the Block and Kramer (2009; 2008)s work, the reason why consumers prefer products with superstitious-related attributes is that superstitious people mistakenly believe that positive superstitious-association attributes lead to higher product performance. It is to be noted that the product performance does nothing with the attributes no matter whether they are positive or negative superstitious-related. Thus, the phenomenon that consumers prefer products with positive superstitious-related attributes match with the concept of superstition that is a belief, or set of belief, that specific actions can directly influence the occurrence of desirable outcomes or the avoidance of undesirable outcomes when, in fact, the actions are not causally related to the outcomes (Carlson, et al., 2009, p. 691). Therefore, we propose that As superstition is the psychological topic originally, however, current literature about superstition in marketplace do not take consumer psychology of superstition into accout. In other words, there is lack of empirical research between the psychological research of superstition and research about superstition in consumer decision making context. It is likely to expect that for superstitiou sconsumers, their situation when using products could induce their evaluation towards products with superstitious-related attributes. 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Friday, May 29, 2020
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Saturday, May 23, 2020
Things to Write a Research Paper OnWhen it comes to writing a research paper, there are a number of things you need to be able to write about. You should know what things to write about before you even start writing the paper. This way, you can avoid the pitfalls that are associated with writing about these things.One of the most important things to write about is the topic of your research. How is the topic going to fit into the context of your paper? What do you need to say in order to make the paper interesting? Knowing this information will help you make your topic interesting and exciting to read. Without a sense of what you are talking about, it will be nearly impossible to get your point across.You should also have an idea of what questions you want to ask in your research paper. Once you know what questions you want to ask, it will be easier to come up with good questions that will help you generate good research. It's also important to have a list of what question you want t o ask before you start writing, as this will keep you from writing your research paper in a haphazard manner.Finally, you should know the type of paper you are going to write before you begin. There are a number of different types of papers you can write, from research-based essays to thesis-based essays. Knowing the type of paper you want to write will help ensure that you don't miss a single important thing.The final thing to think about when it comes to writing a research paper is format. You should know that it is better to have a document that is well-structured than one that is poorly written. In fact, you should try to come up with a way to structure your paper that will allow you to remember it later. Formatting is critical to the success of your research paper.With those factors covered, you should be able to write a research paper that you can be proud of. The key is to not write without first knowing what you are talking about. Write about your topic first and then move o n to other things. Remember, the more you learn about your topic, the better you will be at knowing how to write a research paper.If you find yourself stuck and have difficulty coming up with an idea for your paper, it may be time to invest in some proper research. It is important to know that it is very easy to get lost in research papers if you don't know where to begin. Take some time and find out as much as you can about your topic before you write.Writing a research paper is a lot of work. However, once you have mastered the art of writing a research paper, you will feel like a new writer. And best of all, you will be able to enjoy the fruits of your labor.